Angry rumination, empathy and dispositional forgiveness : the moderating role of gender role orientation

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dc.contributor.advisor Spengler, Paul M. Modica, Christopher A. 2012-05-21T14:16:13Z 2013-12-26T20:17:44Z 2012-05-05 2012-05-21
dc.description Access to thesis permanently restricted to Ball State community only.
dc.description.abstract Research (Miller, Worthington, & McDaniel, 2008) has shown that women have higher levels of dispositional forgiveness than men. Studies (Exline & Zell, 2009; Toussaint & Webb, 2005) have also discovered that empathy predicts dispositional forgiveness differently in men compared to women. It is unclear why these sex differences exist. Therefore, four models were constructed, analyzed, and compared using structural equation modeling in order to determine whether gender role orientation moderates the relationship between empathy and dispositional forgiveness. Self-report data were collected from 502 undergraduate university students at a mid-sized, Midwestern, public university in the United States. The models examined did not fit the data well; possibly caused by the interaction between empathy and femininity within each model. However, significant findings emerged. Results showed that angry rumination negatively predicted dispositional forgiveness. Concerning gender role orientations, results showed that femininity positively predicted dispositional forgiveness, while masculinity did not significantly predict dispositional forgiveness. Contrary to expectations, empathy negatively predicted dispositional forgiveness. However, additional analyses clarified that empathy actually positively predicted dispositional forgiveness; a finding that was likely distorted by multicollinearity in the main models examined. Results revealed that femininity significantly moderated the empathy-dispositional forgiveness relationship. In this study, masculinity did not significantly moderate the relationship between empathy and dispositional forgiveness. This work concludes with a discussion of results in the context of McCullough’s theory of forgiveness (McCullough et al., 1998) and Gilligan’s (1994) theory of moral reasoning. Additionally, issues affecting the measurement of constructs and implications for research and practice are discussed. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Department of Counseling Psychology and Guidance Services
dc.subject.lcsh Forgiveness
dc.subject.lcsh Anger
dc.subject.lcsh Empathy
dc.subject.lcsh Sex role -- Psychological aspects
dc.title Angry rumination, empathy and dispositional forgiveness : the moderating role of gender role orientation en_US Thesis (Ph. D.) en_US 2012-05-22

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  • Doctoral Dissertations [3134]
    Doctoral dissertations submitted to the Graduate School by Ball State University doctoral candidates in partial fulfillment of degree requirements.

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