Welcome to Cardinal Scholar

Cardinal Scholar is the University Libraries Institutional Repository for archival and scholarly research produced at Ball State University.

Recent Submissions

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    A study in school accreditation and student outcomes
    (2023-05) Malasto, Judith; Salloum, Serena
    Accreditation holds a place within accountability systems as a mechanism to evaluate quality that leads to the practices that certify credentials. In K-12 school district these credentials manifest in curriculum, instruction, standards, and ultimately the certifying of credits that lead to receipt of a diploma. School district leadership would find it important to make a well-informed decision on the process used to complete accreditation as there is potential impact on student outcomes and investment of time and talent by stakeholders in the process. Public K-12 school districts in Indiana have the option to utilize a third-party accreditation agency as part of the accountability process. Accountability and school accreditation are necessary tasks as outlined by federal and state statute. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine if there is a significant difference in student outcomes between public K-12 school districts that have completed a formal accreditation process utilizing a third-party agency and those public K-12 school districts that have utilized internal processes for accreditation. Archival data, found on the Indiana Department of Education data warehouse, was used to examine the relationship of student outcomes when considering use of a third-party accreditation agency (Indiana Department of Education, 2022e). Cognia was used as the accreditation agency for this study. Results of the study suggest that the key variable in this study, Cognia status, does not have a significant relationship with achievement when considering assessment scores, attendance rates, and graduation rates.
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    Creating Systems of Sustainability: Four Focus Areas for the Future of PK-12 Open Educational Resources
    (2018-10-09) Ishmael, Kristina; Song, Ji Soo; South, Joseph; Benko, Susanna L.; Hodge, Emily M.; Mardis, Marcia A.; Morales, Rebecca; Salloum, Serena J.; Torphy, Kaitlin; New America; International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)
    Over the past few years, state and school district education leaders have renewed their focus on the quality of learning materials available in our nation’s classrooms (Chiefs for Change, 2017; RAND Corp., 2016; RAND Corp., 2017). Many leaders have been dismayed to find that existing proprietary textbooks and supplementary resources often do not match their teachers’ and students’ needs (Ishmael, 2018a). Fortunately, there is a growing recognition of teachers and school leaders who are addressing this challenge head-on through open educational resources. Simply put, open educational resources, or OER, are “high quality teaching, learning, and research resources that are free for others to use and repurpose”(Hewlett Foundation, 2015). OER range from entire curricula and textbooks to smaller grain-size learning materials, including assessments, videos and images.
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    A Multilevel Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Teachers' Perceptions of Principals' Instructional Support and Group Norms for Instruction in Elementary Schools
    (2010-12) Goddard, Yvonne L.; Neumerski, Christine M.; Goddard, Roger D.; Salloum, Serena J.; Berebitsky, Daniel
    At a time when educators and policy makers are focused on improving outcomes for all children, we believe it is essential to understand better the ways in which principals may influence instructional norms in their schools. Our literature review led us to believe that a combination of leadership approaches is important for supporting teachers' use of differentiated instruction schoolwide to meet their students' diverse needs. Therefore, we examined whether principals' instructional support predicts differences among schools in group norms for the use of differentiated instruction. Data were drawn from a stratified random sample of a Midwestern state's noncharter public elementary schools. Hierarchical linear modeling results of surveys from 616 teachers in 77 schools revealed a positive and statistically significant relationship between these two constructs. In addition to presenting these findings, we discuss their importance and the need for further research in this area.
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    (Un)Commonly Connected: A Social Network Analysis of State Standards Resources for English/Language Arts
    (2016-11-14) Hodge, Emily M.; Salloum, Serena J.; Benko, Susanna L.
    As states continue to implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), state educational agencies (SEAs) are providing professional development and curricular resources to help districts and teachers understand the standards. However, little is known about the resources SEAs endorse, the states and/or organizations sponsoring these resources, and how states and organizations are connected. This study investigates the secondary English/language arts resources provided by 51 SEAs (2,023 resources sponsored by 51 SEAs and 262 intermediary organizations). Social network analysis of states and sponsoring organizations revealed a core-periphery network in which certain states and organizations were frequently named as the sponsors of resources, while other organizations were named as resource sponsors by only one state. SEAs are providing a variety of types of resources, including professional development, curriculum guidelines, articles, and instructional aids. This study offers insight into the most influential actors providing CCSS resources at the state level, as well as how SEAs are supporting instructional capacity through the resources they provide for teachers.
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    The Relationship Between Collective Efficacy and Teachers’ Social Networks in Urban Middle Schools
    (2017-11-20) Berebitsky, Dan; Salloum, Serena J.
    Collective efficacy, a group’s belief in its capabilities to reach a goal, is an important organizational property repeatedly linked with student achievement. However, little scholarship specifies the antecedents of collective efficacy. To fill this gap, this study examines a potential predictor of collective efficacy: teachers’ social networks. The authors employ social network and regression analysis to explore the relationship between network density, network centralization, and collective efficacy in 20 middle school mathematics departments in two large, urban districts across 3 years. Collective efficacy had a significant relationship with density, but not centralization, when controlling for school demographics. The findings underscore the importance of network density to school improvement reforms. Policymakers need to consider policies that support the building of a dense network, which could increase collective efficacy and, ultimately, student achievement.

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