Culture care values, beliefs, and practices of Mexican American migrant farm workers related to health promoting behaviors
The purpose of this study was to describe, explicate, and systematically analyze the culture care values, beliefs, and practices of migrant farm workers related to health promoting behaviors in context of their temporary living accommodations and work setting in two small towns in east central Indiana. The goal of this study was to generate knowledge regarding culture care values, beliefs, and practices of migrant farm workers related to health promoting behaviors. Such knowledge can be used by nurses to provide culturally congruent care which can influence migrant farm workers' health and well-being.The theoretical framework for the study was Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. The qualitative ethnonursing research method was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using both an ethnonursing inquiry guide and an ethno-demographic information guide developed by the researcher.Sixteen key informants and three general informants participated in the study. Informants were purposefully selected for knowledge of migrant farm life and willingness to share this knowledge with the researcher. Key informants were Mexican American migrant farm workers in east central Indiana for farm and tomato factory work from July through October, 2004. General informants were health and social service workers who provided care for the migrant farm workers. Three key informants were interviewed twice each. All other informants were interviewed once. Interviews took place in the informants' homes and at a local food pantry. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim.Four major themes were synthesized from the research data: (a) health promoting behaviors are recognized and valued by migrant farm workers but are influenced by economic and political/legal factors in the social structure; (b) traditional gender roles of migrant farm worker men and women influence health promoting behaviors; (c) professional caring is viewed by migrant farm workers as respect through the use of the Spanish language and acceptance of culture care values, beliefs, and practices; and (d) health promoting behavior of migrant farm workers is influenced both by traditional culture care values and beliefs and by knowledge acquired through diverse formal and informal education. Findings were discussed in relation to Leininger's three modes of culture care action for nurses: culture care preservation/maintenance, accommodation/negotiation, and repatterning/restructuring.