Long-term correlates of unwanted childhood sexual experiences : sexual satisfaction, victimization, and perpetration
The general purpose of this study was to duplicate research conducted by Beverley Joyce Miller Pitts, Ph.D., regarding the newswriting process of practicing journalists. (Future reference regarding this study will be termed the Pitts study.) In an effort to update previous research, this study sought to: review literature published between 1981 and 1987, update research conducted since 1981, support or disprove previous findings as documented in the Pitts study, and provide further research regarding the journalist's newswriting process. The study was conducted separately from previous research; thereby adopting an objective atmosphere in which research and data were obtained. The methodology and procedure of this study were replicated from the Pitts study to ensure consistency in research methods. All analyses, discussions, summaries, conclusions, observations, and recommendations, presented in this study, are based solely on data gathered during the research and presentation phases of this study.Although the Pitts study, 1981, consisted of protocol analysis case studies of three practicing journalists, the study contained herein focuses on the case study of one isolated journalist. As with the Pitts study, this study sought to gather data which describes the overall thought process as executed by a practicing journalist. The primary research tool utilized was protocol analysis. During taped sessions, these verbal protocols required the journalist to "think out loud" while composing the news story.Three protocol case studies were comprised. The first protocol session, the journalist was provided with a fact sheet from which to write. In the second and third protocol sessions, the journalist composed news stories based upon events covered on the daily beat. All three stories were composed on a video display terminal (VDT). The three protocol transcripts, follow-up interviews, reporter's notes, and the completed stories provided the data for analysis. These may be found in the Appendix. The coding scheme used in the Pitts study, which isolated and labeled activities of the newswriting process, was utilized; thus, deciphering the thought process evoked from the journalist when composing newsworthy articles.Journalist Kristi Stone, reporter for the Muncie Star, was selected to participate in this study.Findings indicated that the selection and writing of the lead was the most time-consuming task, that the writer wrote in a patterned sequence, that the writercomposed the story in small units, that goals, planning, and evaluations were short-term in nature, and that the writer created sentences as they were being typed into the VDT. In addition, the writer demonstrated recursiveness in her writing style, and had difficulty in composing stories when the newsgathering element was omitted.A major finding was that the task of writing the lead was the initial step in the writing process and had to be completed before any other writing could take place. The selection of the lead determined the direction of the story; thus, it was the most important act the writer performed. The story was organized as it was written, not planned in advance. The writer planned and wrote one sentence at a time incorporating a series of activities aimed at completing an immediate task. Editing was an important part of the writing process as well as a tool for refining. Memory was an important tool for obtaining information during the writing process. Recall was used for the purposes of remembering information from the newsgathering process, while notes provided the specific details of the incident. The newsgathering task was an integral part of the newswriting process, serving as a catalyst for the story's composition. Difficulty in writing occurred when the newsgathering process was omitted; thus, the newsgathering and newswriting tasks worked in unison and were so closely related they could not easily be separated.The findings documented in this research paper support the previous findings by Pitts conducted in her 1981 port the previous findings by study in that:the lead was the most important taskselection and writing of the lead took place first editing was an integral part of the writing process, not a separate act of refining memory served to recall overall story ideas and informationnotes provided a tool for obtaining specific pieces of informationwriters planned and wrote one sentence at a time by orchestrating a complex set of activities directed at completion of an immediate task.l1Beverly Joyce Miller Pitts, "The Newswriting Process: A Protocl Analysis Case Study of Three Practicing Journalists," Ed.D. Dissertation, Ball State University, pp. 2-3.