An investigation of lake-effect snow warning size in relation to snowfall extent
Every late autumn and winter, lake-effect snow (LES) disrupts the livelihoods of those who reside in the lee of the Great Lakes. This phenomenon often generates significant localized snowfalls that can cripple one section of a community while the remainder is spared. Detrimental impacts on travel from snowfall rates of 1 inch hour-1 or greater are not uncommon. Storm-total snowfall gradients of 6 to 8 inches mile-1 have also been documented. Twenty four-hour snowfall measurements taken by National Weather Service (NWS) observers during Lake Ontario LES events were collected. Utilizing a geographic information system, snowfall was interpolated from spotter reports with the kriging method. Then, the area of warning-criteria snowfall was compared to the area of the corresponding county-based LES warning for calculation of percent of false alarm. This warning performance evaluator identified the proportion of a county-based LES warning that received sub-warning-criteria snowfall and was therefore unnecessary. A total of thirteen events from the 2009-2010 through 2011-2012 LES seasons were analyzed. The average percent of false alarm was approximately 90%. This suggests the NWS should consider smaller warning polygons. Limited-size warnings would enable meteorologists to provide greater specificity regarding the location of anticipated significant snowfall, while simultaneously reducing the number of people who are unnecessarily warned.