The effect of virtue and acceptance on rehabilitation outcomes in individuals with chronic low back pain
While chronic pain acceptance literature is increasing, no prior study explored how virtue and acceptance work together to promote positive adjustment to chronic low back pain. Conceptually framed in the World Health Organization-International Classification of Functioning (WHO-ICF) model of disability, 293 individuals with CLBP completed measures of virtue, chronic pain acceptance, depression, anxiety, life satisfaction, and general functioning. An exploratory hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to determine the role of virtue and acceptance (i.e., activities engagement and pain willingness) in predicting depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction in individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Results showed evidence of an ICF-based understanding of positive pain adjustment whereby virtue and chronic pain acceptance contributed significantly to the experience of depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction in individuals with chronic low back pain. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.