The relationship between cognitive levels of play and child-selected play activities in younger and older preschool children

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dc.contributor.advisor Williams, R. Ann en_US
dc.contributor.author Krenzke, Timothy L. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2011-06-03T19:27:52Z
dc.date.available 2011-06-03T19:27:52Z
dc.date.created 1981 en_US
dc.date.issued 1981
dc.identifier LD2489.Z68 1981 .K7 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://cardinalscholar.bsu.edu/handle/handle/177473
dc.description.abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the cognitive levels of play and the child selected play activities of younger and older preschool children. Hypotheses were formulated to examine this relationship, and the age and sex differences in the cognitive levels of play and the child-selected play activities.The Play Activity Observation Instrument (PAOI) was developed by the researcher. From Smilansky's cognitive levels of play, the PAOI assessed functional, constructive, and dramatic play. Modifying Rubin' s list of the most frequently observed preschool play activities, the PAOI assessed family-work, art, block, wheel toy, table, sand-water, and climbing play.The subjects, twenty-two males and twenty-two females, were enrolled in two preschool programs at a midwestern university. The younger group had a mean age of 41.8 months and the older group had a mean age of 54.0 months.Agreement among the seven trained observers, using was .7564. Data were collected three days a week for six weeks during thirty-minute observation periods.A multivariate analysis of variance used the sex and age of the subjects as the classification variables, and the cognitive levels of play exhibited in the child-selected play activities as the dependent variables. Post hoc analysis, using univariate techniques, was conducted to further interpret the results.Statistical analysis of the mean frequencies of cognitive levels of play exhibited in the child-selected play activities revealed the following results:Significant age differences were found for the cognitive levels of play (p<.0450): older children engaged in more dramatic play. No significant age differences were found for functional or constructive play.No significant age differences were found for the child-selected play activities (p .1214).No significant sex differences were found for the cognitive levels of play (p<.0889).Significant sex differences were found for the child selected play activities (p .0001), and for the child selected play activities by cognitive levels of play interaction (p<.0001).Sex differences could be interpreted only when examining specific child-selected play activities: (A) no sex differences were observed for family-work play; however, both sexes exhibited higher levels of dramatic family-work play and lower levels of functional and constructive family-work play; (B) females exhibited higher levels of constructive art play; (C) males exhibited higher levels of constructive and dramatic block play; (D) males exhibited higher levels of dramatic wheel toy play; (E) no sex differences wore found for table play or sand-water play; (F) males engaged in more dramatic climbing play.Significant differences were found for the overall child-selected play activities by cognitive levels of play interaction (p<.0001). Post hoc analysis indicated that there was more dramatic family-work play than functional or constructive family-work play, more constructive table play than functional or dramatic table play, and more constructive sand-water play than functional or dramatic sand-water play.Several educational implications were presented, including the following:Dramatic play has been linked to later symbolic functioning in creativity, problem solving and reading. This study indicated that the greatest potential for dramatic play occurred in family-work play.Since art, block, wheel toy, and climbing play evoked sex differences in the cognitive levels of play, teachers should encourage cross-sex play behaviors in these activities. en_US
dc.format.extent 3, ix, 134 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm. en_US
dc.source Virtual Press en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Education, Preschool. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Cognition in children. en_US
dc.title The relationship between cognitive levels of play and child-selected play activities in younger and older preschool children en_US
dc.title.alternative Play activities in younger and older preschool children. en_US
dc.description.degree Thesis (Ph. D.) en_US
dc.identifier.cardcat-url http://liblink.bsu.edu/catkey/250931 en_US


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  • Doctoral Dissertations [3194]
    Doctoral dissertations submitted to the Graduate School by Ball State University doctoral candidates in partial fulfillment of degree requirements.

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