A study of the syntactic and semantic performance of good and poor second grade readers on an oral cloze test

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dc.contributor.advisor Cooper, J. David (James David), 1942- en_US
dc.contributor.author Schrenker, Cecilia Elaine en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2011-06-03T19:30:49Z
dc.date.available 2011-06-03T19:30:49Z
dc.date.created 1979 en_US
dc.date.issued 1979
dc.identifier LD2489.Z68 1979 .S37 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://cardinalscholar.bsu.edu/handle/handle/180523
dc.description.abstract The purpose of this study was to determine whether good and poor second grade readers differed in their abilities to respond orally with words which were syntactically correct and were semantically equivalent while reading aloud a fifty item oral cloze test. An extreme range in variance on the dependent measure of semantic equivalence prohibited the planned multivariate analysis of the two dependent measures of syntactic correctness and semantic equivalence. A nonorthogonal univariate analysis of variance was conducted on the dependent measure of syntactic correctness, with intelligence and sex controlled.The subjects for the study were second grade students randomly selected from six middle class elementary schools in a middle size midwestern city. Only students who fit the criteria of a second grade reader and a user of language, employed in this study, formed the population from which the sample was selected. In order to control for the effects of sex, four groups of subjects were used -- twenty male good readers; twenty female good readers; twenty male poor readers; and eighteen female poor readers. Level of reading achievement was based on the subject's score on the reading subtest of the Metropolitan Achievement Tests: Reading Tests, Primary II, Form F. Intelligence was controlled in the statistical analysis through use of the stanine scores of the subjects on the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test, Elementary I Level, Form J.The subjects were administered a fifty item cloze test, constructed and piloted by the researcher. Subjects read the cloze test aloud and supplied responses for the deleted items, which were recorded on answer sheets. A trained judge scored the responses. The criterion for syntactic correctness was as follows: A response was considered to be syntactically correct if it belonged to the same grammatical class as the deleted word. The criterion for semantic equivalence was as follows: A response was considered to be semantically equivalent if, when substituted for the deleted word, it did not alter the meaning of the passage up to the point of the deletion and the meaning of the sentence in which it occurred.The three independent variables in the study were intelligence with two levels (high and average), sex with two levels (male and female), and reading achievement with two levels (good and poor.) Intelligence and sex were used as controlling factors. The two dependent measures were syntactic correctness and semantic equivalence. However, the extreme variability within the dependent measure of semantic equivalence prohibited statistical analysis.A nonorthogonal univariate analysis of variance was conducted on the dependent measure of syntactic correctness, with intelligence and sex controlled. The null hypothesis was rejected (F=13.195, with 1 and 70 degrees of freedom p < .0001). Good second grade readers did have significantly higher syntactic correctness scores on the oral cloze test than poor second grade readers. While the difference between the marginal means for good and poor second grade readers was small, it was statistically significant. Although the dependent measure of semantic equivalence was not analyzed, the within-cell correlation between syntactic correctness and semantic equivalence was high (.794).The finding of the study was interpreted to mean that good second grade readers appeared to be more aware of and more able to use the syntactical constraints of the printed text to supply missing words. It was concluded that poor readers may need to be specifically taught to use the syntactical constraints of the printed text, rather than expecting this ability to develop naturally. en_US
dc.format.extent vii, 145 leaves ; 28 cm. en_US
dc.source Virtual Press en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Reading -- Research. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Reading -- Remedial teaching. en_US
dc.title A study of the syntactic and semantic performance of good and poor second grade readers on an oral cloze test en_US
dc.description.degree Thesis (Ph. D.) en_US
dc.identifier.cardcat-url http://liblink.bsu.edu/catkey/265256 en_US


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  • Doctoral Dissertations [3145]
    Doctoral dissertations submitted to the Graduate School by Ball State University doctoral candidates in partial fulfillment of degree requirements.

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