A study on the nature and frequency of adult comments at Little League baseball games

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dc.contributor.advisor Wayda, Valerie K. en_US
dc.contributor.author Enigk, Mary Ellen en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2011-06-03T19:39:40Z
dc.date.available 2011-06-03T19:39:40Z
dc.date.created 2002 en_US
dc.date.issued 2002
dc.identifier LD2489.Z78 2002 .E55 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://cardinalscholar.bsu.edu/handle/handle/187316
dc.description.abstract The National Alliance for Youth Sports compared field reports released in 1995 to those in 2000, illustrating a 5% to 15% increase in adults that have gotten out of line at youth events (Carlozo, 2000). The purpose of this study was to assess the nature and frequency of adult comments at Little League baseball games for children ages 9 to 12. In addition, adults were surveyed in order to evaluate their personal opinions of crowd conduct.The participants in this study consisted of adults attending Little League baseball games in rural Indiana from May 30, 2001 to June 26, 2001. To address the purpose of the study, the researcher recorded adult comments using an adaptation of the Parent Observation Instrument for Sports Events (Kidman et al., 1999). An additional sample of 65 adults attending the last game of the season was purposefully selected to complete the survey portion of the study.The researcher tried to determine if there were significant differences between the nature of the adult comments (positive or negative), the frequency of adult comments by team play (offense or defense), by gender of the adult, by team status (winning or losing), or by competitive level (major league or minor league). Additionally, the researcher tried to determine whether there were qualitative differences between actual comments and adult opinions of comments.A chi square analysis was calculated for hypotheses 1 - 5 (p < .05) and the last hypothesis compared a chi square calculation to the frequency counts on a survey of adults. The results showed a significant difference in the frequency of comments based on the nature of the comment (positive/negative), gender, and competitive level (major league/minor league). There was no significant difference between team status (winning/losing) and frequency of comments made. There was consistency between adults' opinions of comments and actual observations. Observation results showed higher frequencies of positive comments than negative comments. Through survey data analysis, it was determined that adults believed more positive comments were made at the games.
dc.description.sponsorship School of Physical Education
dc.format.extent vii, 64 leaves ; 28 cm. en_US
dc.source Virtual Press en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Little League baseball -- Case studies. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Little League baseball -- Psychological aspects. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Baseball for children -- Case studies. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Baseball for children -- Psychological aspects. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Baseball fans -- Attitudes. en_US
dc.title A study on the nature and frequency of adult comments at Little League baseball games en_US
dc.description.degree Thesis (M.S.)
dc.identifier.cardcat-url http://liblink.bsu.edu/catkey/1231339 en_US


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  • Master's Theses [5510]
    Master's theses submitted to the Graduate School by Ball State University master's degree candidates in partial fulfillment of degree requirements.

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