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Cardinal Scholar is the University Libraries Institutional Repository for archival and scholarly research produced at Ball State University.

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    Systematically examining the effectiveness of creativity interventions on divergent thinking
    (2023-07) Ascolani, Margaret R.
    While several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have investigated the effectiveness of creativity interventions, three primary concerns remain: dated research, inconsistent findings, and unclear strategy classifications. To address these gaps, this current study analyzed contemporary research examining the efficacy of creativity interventions to provide a comprehensive synthesis. A systematic search was conducted utilizing 20 years of research from the top four, distinguished creativity journals: Creativity Research Journal, the Journal of Psychology, Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, Thinking Skills and Creativity, Journal of Creative Behavior, which yielded 4,891 articles and 20 qualifying for the analysis. Three primary research questions guided this work, regarding the (a) interventions’ content and administration, (b) samples and contexts studied, and (c) the efficacy of these interventions. The first two questions were addressed using a systematic review. Within this analysis, 18 different strategies were taught within 20 interventions, and most required active engagement (rather than passive incubation). The two most taught cognitive processes were perspective taking and manipulation. Further, the most frequently studied sample included either elementary/middle school students or college students/adults, located in the United States. The full meta-analysis 3 yielded an estimate effect size of 0.26, (p < 0.05), and neither age/education nor the divergent thinking subcomponent (e.g., fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration) affected the effectiveness of the intervention. Finally, this work identified multiple gaps within reporting techniques in the field while offering insight into the inconsistencies found in earlier research.
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    The Urban Design of Street Circuit Racing: The Circle City Circuit
    (2024-07-18) Knuteson, Thomas Sawyer
    Street circuits offer various placemaking opportunities for tourists and locals, generating economic possibilities while also creating unique environmental challenges. In order to lead the way as the premier place to see sporting events and motorsports, Indianapolis must integrate an environmentally conscious, iconic street circuit into its future. This research uses design as a vehicle for understanding how environmentally conscious urban design practices can be employed to find carbon offsetting solutions to enable a permanent street circuit in an urban setting, utilizing Indianapolis, Indiana, as a design precedent.
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    The influence of whole-body-vibration on leg strength and muscle activation
    (2023-12) Wilkinson, Robert; Dickin, Clark
    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been proposed as a potential alternative protocol that could elicit post activation potentiation and has been shown to elicit increases in physical. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in motor unit activity in response to repeated exposures to WBV stimuli. By utilizing sEMG decomposition techniques the current study assessed changes in motor unit activity during maximal and submaximal muscle actions (concentric and eccentric isokinetic muscle actions) both before and following a series of WBV exposures. Fifteen, apparently healthy adults aged 18-35 participated in this study. Subjects were excluded from this study if they reported a history of joint replacement, or recent constructive surgery, acute or chronic injury within the last 60 days. Each participant was assessed on two experimental test sessions separated by 3-7 days. To standardize data collections, all participants wore compression clothing and standard laboratory neutral cross-trainer shoes. The two experimental sessions consist of standing on a WBV platform under either a vibration condition (vibration) or a SHAM condition (control) where the vibration was not administered. Anthropometric measurements recorded included height and weight. Trigno Avanti surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed near the middle portion of the muscle belly on the vastus medialis on the dominant side and on Cybex dynamometer arm. Additionally, Trigno Galileo sensors were placed in the middle of the muscle belly on the vastus medialis and rectus femoris. The current study observed one statistically significant measure, it should be noted that, results with moderate effect sizes were also observed in some of our parameters, mainly, phase*contraction and vibration*contraction. These differences suggest that potential changes in muscle activation patterns may be altered following WBV, but further investigations are needed to determine the overall effect more clearly.
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    Reach and impact of the Illinois tobacco public education campaign to promote quitline usage
    (2023-12) Redke, Erika; Cassady, Jerrell
    Objective: Tobacco use remains a leading cause of preventable disease and death in the U.S. Despite the proven effectiveness of quitlines in aiding tobacco cessation, their utilization remains low. In response, Illinois implemented a comprehensive media campaign to boost the utilization of the Illinois Tobacco Quitline (ITQL). This study evaluated the reach and impact of the ITQL media campaign on adult smokers in Illinois by assessing campaign awareness, receptivity, and impact on key outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey with 1,122 Illinois adult smokers ages 18-54 collected data at three time points between 2021 and 2023. Demographics, smoking status, campaign awareness, and perceived effectiveness of ads were assessed. Participants reported key outcomes including recall of 4 facts from campaign content, opinions of ITQL, concerns about how smoking will lower their quality of life or damage their health in the future, prioritization of quitting, and past quitline usage. Analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression to compare proportions between campaign-aware and unaware participants and explore if recall predicted key outcomes. 2 Results: The campaign reached 77% of the audience with no significant change in awareness across waves. Video advertisements were perceived as highly effective. Campaignaware individuals had significantly higher odds of recalling facts (OR = 1.43-2.89, p < .05), highly prioritizing quitting (OR = 1.59, p < .05), and reporting past quitline usage (OR = 33.33, p < .001), compared to campaign-unaware individuals. Conclusions: The ITQL media campaign demonstrated substantial reach and had a favorable impact on the Illinois adult smoking population’s use of quitline services. The success of the campaign underscores the importance of well-researched and carefully executed strategic communication in promoting public health interventions. Findings highlight that investment in such campaigns can yield substantial public health benefits by encouraging desirable health behaviors.
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    American voting habits pre-2020 presidential election
    (2023-12) Maxwell, Amber; Finch, W. Holmes
    This study reviews the habits of Americans’ voting habits prior to the 2020 Presidential Election of Donald Trump vs Joe Biden. The data was taken from a survey presented to visitors of the websites FiveThirtyEight and IPSOS. Evidence suggests that those who chose to vote did so because they believed in its importance, its impact, and its accessibility. Voters tended to trust the government and believed that the system did not require much change, if any. They believed that their vote mattered in the outcome of elections and policies. On the contrary, those who chose not to vote did not feel that their vote mattered, nor did they have much trust in their government. They also felt that voting was inaccessible to them, as obligations or other events prevented them from casting their vote. Follow-up surveys after the 2020-2024 election period are recommended to determine whether the beliefs of both voters and nonvoters changed.

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