Multi-stressor effects of PPCPs on Daphnia magna growth, reproduction, and mortality
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are ubiquitous in freshwater ecosystems due to point and non-point pollution and occur as contaminant mixtures. Although concentrations measured (ng/L) are generally below expected levels for acute effects, the potential for adverse effects associated with chronic exposure are not well understood. Further, organismal response to multiple contaminants, as is observed in natural ecosystems, has not been explored. This research quantified chronic effects of multiple PPCP compounds on D. magna over 21 days of exposure to assess how the number of contaminants may influence organismal response as growth, reproduction, and mortality. Final size, fecundity, and amount of eggs in brood pouch per day decreased with increasing compound number. There was no significant difference in mortality, number of offspring, or first day of reproduction with increasing compound number. D. magna responses to PPCP mixtures are different than exposure to a single PPCP compound.