The jump landing impact absorption kinematics and kinetics
The purpose of this study was to determine the jump landing impact absorption kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the four subject groups: a) male high school athletes, b) female high school seasonal athletes, c) female high school year-round athletes, and d) female college athletes who train year-round. Subjects dropped onto a force platform from a height of 40 centimeters. Variables analyzed were flexibility, strength, Fz, Fy, and Fx force, free moment, range of motion, contact and maximum angles, time to maximum angle, contact and maximum angular velocities, and time to maximum angular velocity. Significant differences among subject groups were determined through use of a factorial analysis of variance and Scheffe' post hoc test.A difference was noted in the landing patterns of males and females. Male subjects exhibited a significantly longer time to first vertical peak force. This longer time may allow for greater initial force attenuation; however, the male athletes had a significantfy greater second peak force. Males also differed significantly from females in anteroposterior and mediolateral force.The differences in method of force attenuation may be due to significantly greater ankle eversion shown by the males and greater knee flexion used by the females. Additionally, the males had significantly greater leg strength, which may have allowed them to increase the time to first peak.The year round female high school athletes were found to use the best biomechanical landing method. They had a greater range of motion in the knee and ankle, and subsequently produced the lowest amount of vertical and anterio-posterior force.