Histochemical and biochemical changes in human muscle following 17 days of unilateral lower limb suspension
The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between perinatal complications and subsequent development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and other behavioral characteristics. The biological mothers of 74 children diagnosed with ADHD and 77 children displaying no characteristics of the disorder completed the Maternal Perinatal Scale (MPS), the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scales (BASC-PRS), and a demographic survey. In addition, the biological mothers of 120 children with no characteristics of ADHD or any other behavior disorders completed only the MPS so that exploratory factor analysis of the MPS could be completed.Following factor analysis, stepwise discriminant analysis of the resulting five factors was utilized to explore the nature of the relationship between such perinatal factors and ADHD. Results of this analysis indicated that emotional factors, or the amount of stress encountered during pregnancy and the degree to Relationship Between Perinatal Complications 3 was planned, were the items that maximized the separation between the ADHD and Non-ADHD groups. Additional discrimination between the groups was attributed to the extent of insult or trauma to the developing fetus and the outcome of prior pregnancies. ADHD children were also found to have experienced twice as many behavioral, social, or medical problems, and were more likely to reach developmental milestones with delays.Stepwise discriminant analysis also revealed the Attention Problems and Hyperactivity scales of the BASC-PRS were most significant in differentiating between the ADHD and Non-ADHD subjects. Using the BASC-PRS resulted in approximately 90% of the total sample being correctly classified as ADHD or Non-ADHD. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that emotional factors and the general health of both the mother and the developing fetus were the best predictors of later behavioral patterns reported on the BASC-PRS.