The employment of ornamentation in present day trombone performance of transcriptions of Baroque literature
The basic purpose of this dissertation is to provide the trombonist of today with a realization concerning ornamentation practices of the baroque period, and to supply trombonists and trombone instructors with the resources necessary to include the appropriate ornaments in a performance of baroque music.Chapter 1 is concerned with the ornamentation practices of Italy and France, the two most influential nations in the development of a mature style of baroque performance. The Italian tradition of free embellishment is presented and compared with the French tradition of composers' providing specific ornaments for their music. The author's choice of ornaments presented in the sonatas of Galliard, Marcello, and Vivaldi in Chapters 4, 5, and 6 is based on the prominence of these two styles.Chapter 2 is a presentation of the three most popular categories of embellishments employed during the baroque period. The families of appoggiaturas, trills, and mordents, are notated together with suggestions for their proper expression and execution on the trombone. Examples are taken from the embellished sonatas presented later in this study, using measure numbering to identify their placement withineach measure.Chapter 3 is an essay dealing with the art of trilling on the trombone. The overtone series is explained in regard to the formation of thirds, and to the proper notation necessary to adequately perform trills of major and minor thirds. A section concerning the use of the "F" attachment for performing baroque trills is highlighted with examples identifying several valve and slide combinations that favor the execution of major and minor seconds on the trombone.Chapters 4, 5, and 6 are an application of baroque embellishments to eighteen sonatas from the baroque period. Each of the ornaments is notated and placed within the context of the music. The musical compositions chasen for this study represent the Six Sonatas for Bassoon and Harpsichord Johann Ernst Galliard, Six Sonatas for Viloncello and Piano by Benedetto Marcello, and Six Sonatas for Violoncello and Figured Bass by Antonio Vivaldi.