The effects of a laboratory experience on self-acceptance and internal-external control with academically deficient undergraduate students as compared to regular students
The purpose of this study was to investigate, under experimental conditions, the effect of a laboratory experience on self-acceptance and internal-external control with academically deficient college students as compared with Regular students.The ninety subjects in this study were all undergraduate students at Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. The study was conducted during the spring of 1978.Two sections of the Career and Life Planning course, Counseling Psychology 110, were designated as control groups; and, two other sections were designated as experimental groups. One section of the control group sections contained Academic Opportunity Program students; and, one section contained regular students. The same was true for the experimental group. The experimental groups participated with a vital peer in six one hour laboratory sessions over a six week period. Each week's laboratory session consisted of an experiential exercise and a group discussion. The feedback by the subjects and vital peers utilized guidelines delineated by Brammer.The data collected for each subject was the total score obtained on the Personal Orientation Self-Acceptance Scale and Rotter's Internal-External Scale. Each subject was administered a pre-test and post-test of each instrument.The effects of the treatment were analyzed through the use of a 2 X 2 multivariate analysis of covariance. The pre-test scores were used as a covariate.An F-test was used to test the parallelism of regression hyperplanes. This test-examined the homogeneity of the mean factors; and the results indicated the groups were parallel. The implications for this test indicated that the results could be interpreted directly.Two null hypotheses were stated. The first null hypothesis stated that there would be no significant difference between the A.O.P. subjects and the Regular subjects on the P.O.I. (Sa) Scale. This hypothesis was not rejected at the .05 level. The second hypothesis stated that there would be no significant difference between the A.O.P. subjects and the Regular subjects on the I-E Scale. This hypothesis was not rejected at the .05 level. A significant multivariate F (F=4.43, P.<.05) did occur when comparing all of-the A.O.P. subjects scores and all of the Regular subjects' scores. The univariate F which had an effect on the multivariate F was the P.O.I. (Sa) Scale (F=7.42, P.<.01).It was concluded from this study that:this treatment, with this population, in this time frame and measured by the P.O.I. (Sa) Scale, did not produce significance between the Experimental and Control groups.2. this treatment, with this population, in this time frame and measured by the I-E Scale, did not produce significance between the Experimental and Control groups.3. A.O.P. and Regular subject groups in this study experienced an increased overall mean on the Post P.O.I. (Sa) Scale.4, based on the correlation matrix which was constructed, the P.O.I. (Sa) Scale and the I-E Scale were found to measure separate factors.The results of this study and subjective observations indicated several areas which may be worthy of further exploration.1. This study needs to be replicated where the time periods could be extended to an hour and one-half to provide more time for the individual laboratory experiences.It is recommended that two groups of subjects be used which are not enrolled in the Career and Life Planning class.3. Although the measurement instruments used in this study are frequently used in research, it might be advisable to replicate this study using a different measurement which may be more sensative.4. Since the purpose of this study was to establish a need for further research, this research might be geared towards creating an instrument that does evaluate the effects of a V.P. feedback process.5. A 12 hour marathon group may provide additional and different information than the six week laboratory experience.6. Board games similar to the Ungame and Lifestyle may be added to the laboratory experiences. The subjective responses indicated subject popularity which may influence self-acceptance and/or internal-external control.