The effects of lesson preparation and teaching of reading and the effects of reinforcement inherent in the teaching role on the reading performance and attitude toward reading of low-reading sixth grade tutors
This study investigated the effects of lesson preparation and teaching of reading and the effects of reinforcement inherent in the teaching role on reading comprehension, vocabulary, and attitude toward the concept "reading." Subjects for the study were low reading sixth graders.In this study equivalent groups were used to control for the possible positive social effects inherent in the process of assuming the tutor role. Additionally, the total time involvement with the reading material was controlled to assure equal time involvement for all subjects.In order to determine the most effective use of tutoring as a means of educational intervention for tutors, it was necessary to isolate the critical factors which determine the success of the overall tutoring process. Rigorous experimental control was also necessary in order to determine whether the academic improvement of tutors was actually a function of the tutoring process and not a function of uncontrolled, unknowm factors.The subjects in this study were 71 sixth grade students from 10 classrooms located in the seven elementary schools of a rural Midwestern school system. The subjects included all sixth grade students in the entire school system who scored between one and three years below grade level in reading comprehension, and for whom written parental permission for participation in the study was obtained.A pretest-posttest control group design was used to test data relative to nine hypotheses. The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests were used to measure the reading comprehension and vocabulary of all sixth graders. A semantic differential was used to measure the attitudes of subjects toward the concept "reading."Analysis of covariance was the statistical treatment utilized to determine the significance of differences in data relative to the nine hypotheses.Following the pretest, subjects were randomly assigned within each school into one of three groups. Experimental group (ER) tutored fourth grade students in reading for three one-half hour periods a week for 12 weeks. These subjects tutored during part of their regular classroom reading period. Experimental group (EA) tutored fourth grade students in arithmetic for three, one-half hour periods a week for 12 weeks. These tutors remained in their regular sixth grade classroom during reading period. Control group (C) did not tutor nor interact with fourth grade children. These subjects remained in their sixth grade classroom for regular reading instruction.The conclusions of this study are as follows:1. Working as a tutor in reading plus receiving some' regularclassroom instruction was as effective as receiving regularclassroom instruction in reading alone.2. The effects of the reinforcement inherent in playing the role of teacher alone do not appear to produce improved reading achievement skills.3.Actual lesson preparation and teaching of reading plus some regular classroom reading instruction were as effective as regular classroom reading instruction alone.4. The effects of playing the role of teacher did not affect subject attitudes toward reading.