A look at alternative ways to fund gender equity in the Mid-American Conference universities
In 1972, a major event in intercollegiate athletics changed sport history. The event was the passing of the Educational Amendment, known as Title IX. Title IX, stated no person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance (The Educational Amendment Act 1972, U.S.C. section 1681). These changes have been both positive and negative. Positively in the last several decades it has increased the number of women athletes participating in intercollegiate sports. Negatively, men have seen a decrease with teams downsized and sports eliminated over the last several decades. The purpose of this study was to investigate ways athletic directors in the Mid-American Conference can provide funding for gender equity in the future without the elimination of men's sports. The results of this study will be contributed as useful information to assist athletic directors in the Mid-American Conference to finance gender equity.Finance Gender Equity Study (FGES) was developed to investigate solutions to provide alternative ways to fund gender equity within Mid-American Conference athletic programs without eliminating men's sports. A pilot study was conducted February 1999 to help validate the research questions used in the study result. The potential subjects were those individuals who were athletic directors in the Mid-American Conference. Subjects were contacted by telephone and/or e-mail for possible participation in the study. The individuals who agreed to participate in the "(FGES)" received a cover letter explaining the details of the study. The subjects were required to rate each statement on a Likert scale and fill out short answer questions. The results of the data are kept confidential and released to the participants of the study upon request.The results from the three research questions in chapter one provided data to discuss the findings. The first research question addressed current opportunities for fund raising. Results of this study indicated alumni donations, fund raising campaigns, and sponsorships were highly recommended as current opportunities to raise additional funding. Additional suggestions included distribution of football bowl and NCAA basketball tournament monies, earmark funds for gender equity projects, naming rights, and scholarship fund raising. The second research question addressed ways to cut cost in athletic budgets. Results of this study indicated cutting athletic programs was recommended more highly than reducing scholarship cost and downsizing athletic programs. Additional suggestions included revising a uniform replacement policy, instituting a reward program for coming under budget, utilizing team travel in guarantees, and limiting team travel to regional competitions. The third research question addressed alternative opportunities for fund raising. Results of this study indicated endowing funds for scholarship, athletic programs raising a portion of their budget, and a fixed cost set per athletic team were highly recommended as an alternative opportunity for fund raising.Educational institutions have an obligation to uphold the law Title IX. The results of the (FGES) and research both show ways athletic directors in the Mid-American Conference can provide funding for gender equity in the future without the elimination of men's sports.