Creativity and cognitive style : the relationship between field-dependence-independence, expected evaluation, and creative performance
This study explored the effects of cognitive style and expected evaluation on creativity. Past research has shown that an expectation of evaluation can have a negative impact on creativity, and those individuals classified as field-independent rather than field-dependent are more likely to have higher creativity scores. An interaction between expected evaluation and cognitive style was hypothesized. Participants created a collage to measure creativity, either with or without an expectation of evaluation, and then cognitive style was measured. The hypothesis was partially supported. The more field-independent an individual, the higher the creativity score. Those in the evaluation condition scored higher in creativity than those in the non-evaluation condition, but this effect disappeared when controlling for time and previous art experience. The effect of expected evaluation is discussed in terms of the experimental situation and the conceptualization of motivation. Further investigations of cognitive style and motivational conditions are suggested.