A study of the awareness of metacognitive strategies in third and sixth grade students
The purpose of the study was to compare the awareness of metacognitive strategies among ineffective, average, and successful readers and between third and sixth graders.The study sample consisted of one hundred fifty-nine third grade and one hundred fifty-six sixth grade students from three city schools in a midwest community. Subjects were classified into three different performance groups designated as ineffective, average, and successful according to scores on the reading comprehension subtest of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. The researcher developed the Instrument for Measuring Awareness of Metacognitive Strategies (IMAMS) to detect existence of metacognitive applications perceived by students in elementary school. A pilot study was conducted to refine and establish reliability of the instrument. Subjects were administered the IMAMS in their regular classroom setting by the researcher. The data were analyzed using a two-way univariate analysis of variance to test the hypotheses.Findings The data from this study indicated:1. There were significant differences among mean awareness of metacognitive strategies scores for ineffective, average, and successful readers at the third and sixth grades.2. Successful readers in third and sixth grades combined differed significantly in their mean scores for awareness of metacognitive strategies from those of ineffective and average readers.3. Mean scores for awareness of metacognitive strategies between ineffective and average readers were not found to be significantly different.4. Sixth grade readers differed significantly from third grade readers with higher mean scores in awareness of to have greater awareness of metacognitive strategies.Conclusions Based on the findings of this study the following conclusions were drawn:1. Students classified as successful readers appear to have greater metacognitive strategies than those classified as either average or ineffective. The ability to understand and express or respond to a measure of metacognition may be related to reading achievement level or may be influenced by competencies that affect both reading scores and performance on the metacognition measure.2. Students designated as average and ineffective readers at both third and sixth grades do not differ in their awareness of metacognitive strategies involved in reading. These results may possibly be due to the narrow interval between the percentile ranks utilized to classify students into average and ineffective groups. 3. Sixth grade readers demonstrated more awareness of metacognitive strategies than the third grade readers.4. The awareness of metacognitive strategies appears to increase as levels of reading performance elevate.5. There is a gradual and continuing development of the awareness of metacognitive strategies as students proceed through the grades in school.