Selected alternatives for public higher education collective bargaining : an analysis ultilizing a systems approach
The purpose of the study was to develop a human relations systems model for professional personnel in higher education. The model developed provided a mechanism for systematically analyzing bargaining alternatives.A review of selected literature on alternative approaches for collective bargaining and creative or innovative alternatives within collective bargaining was made. Models for bargaining in higher education, selected management strategies, union strategies, and union-management cooperation efforts were summarized. In addition, strikes, impasse procedures, state statutes involving impasse procedures, as well as proposals for federal legislation were reported. Among the strategies selected were Boulwarism, cost package bargaining, multi-employer bargaining, joint bargaining, coalition bargaining, profit and progress sharing plans, and union-management cooperation. Impasse procedures included strikes, arbitration, mediation, and fact-finding. The impasse procedures of the New York, Massachusetts, Hawaii, and Pennsylvania bargaining statutes were examined. The review consisted of an explanation of each alternative, and an evaluation in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. A review of selectedliterature on systems theory, and models and systems in labor re-. lations was also made.A human relations systems analysis model, designed from the literature review pertaining to models and systems of labor relations, was presented. The model provided a means of analyzing alternatives and generating tailor made approaches to bargaining, and spawned new hypotheses.Practical utilization of the model by analyzing alternatives in hypothetical settings and generating tailor made approaches to bargaining was demonstrated. Important factors favoring or not favoring an alternative were reported. The efficacy of an approach was entirely dependent upon the unique educational setting.The majority of alternatives examined were judged as possessing potential for application in higher education. Of the alternatives studied all could be expected to be associated with operational difficulties in higher education institutions. Alternatives were seen as requiring varying degrees of modification before being implemented in higher education in order to minimize such difficulties. Most of the alternatives examined should not be used as the sole approach, or method in an approach, to human relations taken by an institution; but rather, should be included as part of a more comprehensive approach to human relations. Most constructive changes in collective bargaining for education were judged as being derived from strategies, mechanisms, methods, and procedures.All management strategies studied were judged to be applicable for higher education collective bargaining. Joint bargaining by unions was anticipated in states where funding for higher education was represented by a single line item in the state budget. Union-management cooperation was the alternative closest to the concept of integrative bargaining, and represented the approach most writers in the field were suggesting be pursued. Profit and progress sharing plans were thought to have limited application as principal approaches to faculty-administration relations.Many alternatives studied were best characterized as attempts to avoid or circumvent the strike. A major problem facing the education relations system appeared to be in finding an acceptable substitute for the strike in the public sector. At present no single impasse procedure appeared to be as effective as the strike in resolving labor disputes. The most viable impasse procedures were identified as procedures in which the government official responsible for settling such disputes was provided with as many alternatives as possible, including non-intervention, and was given complete freedom in making a choice of which procedure or combination of procedures were to be used in an intervention into a labor dispute. Separate legislation as well as federal legislation for education labor relations appeared inadvisable.Implications of the study were identified. Recommendations to improve bargaining, and recommendations for additional research were offered.