Adapting Orff Schulwerk to the American elementary music program : a creative project
The purpose of the study was to determine the composition and characteristics of employer and employee negotiating teams during initial stages of legislated collective bargaining for public schools in Indiana. Study participants included superintendents and trustees and 204 presidents of identified exclusive representatives of bargaining units of Indiana school systems.Participants responded relative to the number, race, sex, previous negotiating experience, and professional employment positions held by negotiating team members; positions held in professional employment, previous negotiating experience, race, and sex of negotiating team spokesmen; remuneration of negotiating team members and spokesmen; and extent of use, position held on negotiation teams, basis of selection, previous negotiating experience, amount and basis of remuneration of outside experts in negotiations.Findings of the study were:1. Teacher negotiating teams were larger than teams representing boards of education. Teachers' teams increased in number as pupil enrollment of school systems increased.2. Almost all negotiating teams had one individual identified as negotiating team spokesman.3. School board member participation on employer negotiating teams increased as pupil enrollment of school systems decreased.4. Slightly more than 25 per cent of all superintendents participated on employer negotiating teams. Only one superintendent served as spokesman in school districts serving 12,000 or more students.5. The number of principals serving as spokesman increased as the pupil enrollment of school systems decreased.6. The number of business managers serving as spokesmen increased as the pupil enrollment of school systems increased.7. Assistant Superintendents for Personnel and/or Directors of Employee Relations served as spokesman only in districts serving 6,000 or more pupils.8. Attorneys served as outside experts on one-half of employer negotiating teams.9. Negotiating team membership reflected all segments of employer and employee groups.10. Slightly less than one-half of team spokesmen reported they had no previous negotiating experience. Almost 100 per cent of team spokesmen for school systems with 6,000 or fewer students were inexperienced.11. The years of previous negotiating experience of outside experts increased as the pupil enrollment of school systems increased.12. Almost 100 per cent of employer negotiating team spokesmen outside experts and team members were white males.13. Slightly more than three-fourths of employee negotiating team spokesmen were males.14. Employee negotiating team membership was composed of about one-half white males and one-half white females.15. Almost 100 per cent of the outside experts and spokesmen for employee negotiating teams were white males.16. Remuneration of outside experts ranged from $23,000 to $500. Per diem compensation ranged from $300 to $100. Per hour compensation ranged from $55 to $20.17. Almost one-half of employer team outside experts were paid on a per hour basis plus expenses.18. Outside experts serving employee negotiating teams were reimbursed in salary by state and/or national teacher organizations.Size of school district is a major factor in determining the composition and characteristics of negotiating teams.The amount or basis of remuneration paid to outside experts, spokesmen, or team members is not positively related to size of school system.Large amounts of tax dollars are being expended to carry out mandated negotiations.Employer negotiations are conducted by white males. Employee negotiations spokesmen are predominately white males.As of 1975 the status of negotiations in Indiana is one of attempting to implement a process; therefore, the level of sophistication in negotiations is minimal.Management personnel have lacked adequate preparation for negotiations and consequently have turned to outside experts until competent in-house negotiators are developed.Teacher groups rely heavily upon assistance provided through national networks of teacher organizations.