The effects of Carbamazepine on the growth and reproduction of Daphnia magna
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been found in freshwater ecosystems and have the potential to affect macroinvertebrate organisms. At this time, the effects of PPCPs on macroinvertebrates are not completely understood. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant drug that has been found in freshwater ecosystems. This drug is of potential concern to ecosystems due to its toxicity and recalcitrance. To better understand the effects of CBZ on freshwater macroinvertebrates, Daphnia magna, a macroinvertebrate species found in freshwater systems, were exposed to a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of CBZ. The lifespan, age at which sexual maturity was reached, and offspring/birth were analyzed over a 3 week period. D. magna exposed to higher concentration of CBZ did not differ from D. magna exposed to no or low concentrations of CBZ. These results could be due to a lack of toxicity level of CBZ or short exposure time. Though results did not coincide with the hypotheses made at the beginning of the experiment, they indicate that more research should be done concerning CBZ toxicity in freshwater ecosystems with a longer exposure time and higher CBZ concentrations.