Chemical dependency etiology and treatment among African-American males : a critical clinically applied anthropological perspective
Chemical dependency as it pertains to African-American males is examined through the theoretical perspectives of critical medical anthropology and clinically applied anthropology, the synthesis of the two referred to as critical clinically applied anthropology. The major etiological models and theories of chemical dependency are reviewed as are the contemporary chemical dependency treatment services.The critical clinically applied anthropological perspective examines chemical dependency and its treatment at four levels: 1) the macrosocial, 2) intermediate, 3) the microsocial, and 4) the individual. Additional variables concerning chemical dependency such as societal or large scale, institutional, local/environmental, organizational, and small scale factors are addressed as well. The above levels of analysis and independent variables indicate that racism, in the form of economic, political, and cultural oppression is a significant etiological factor concerning AfricanAmerican male chemical dependency. It is suggested that in order to provide more effective chemical dependency treatment, racial oppression must be addressed in the treatment setting.