Cognitive processes associated with creativity : scale development and validation

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Miller, Angela L.
Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)
Department of Educational Psychology
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Based on empirical evidence from numerous studies involving the cognitive components of creativity training, the Cognitive Processes Associated with Creativity (CPAC) scale was developed to efficiently and directly address the processes of brainstorming, metaphorical and analogical thinking, perspective-taking, imagery, incubation, and flow. An online pilot study (n = 226) and laboratory follow-up study (n = 120) collected responses to the newly created CPAC scale and a variety of other creativity measures. Overall, the results of this research indicate that the CPAC scale has many sound psychometric qualities, and the scale assesses creativity as a process variable. The data from both studies provide evidence for the construct validity of the scale, with a relatively stable factor structure reflecting the underlying theoretical subscales. A lack of relationships between the CPAC scale, social desirability, and several demographic variables suggested some evidence for divergent validity. There is mixed evidence for concurrent validity, as scores on the CPAC were not significantly correlated with product-focused measures of creativity but were significantly correlated with other previously established self-report creativity instruments. Further investigation of these findings indicated that different conceptualizations and design issues may be the reason for the nonsignificant results, and additional research in this area is needed. A deeper exploration of the relationships between the various self-report subscales led to a more vivid description of each cognitive process included in the CPAC, laying the foundation for a theoretical understanding of the similarities and differences of these processes.