A reexamination of the adoption of the bow and arrow in the eastern woodlands
This thesis reexamines the adoption of the bow and arrow in the Eastern Woodlands. Archaeologists have usually relied on the size and shape of projectile points to help them determine when the bow and arrow was adopted, since the other parts of this complex system (e.g., the wooden bows and arrow shafts) do not survive well in the Eastern Woodlands. The current belief is that the bow and arrow was introduced during the Late Woodland period (AD 500) in the Eastern Woodlands. This is based on the wide spread use of small stone projectile points and on their continued use up to European contact. However, this small point technology was actually established during the Late Archaic period (2000 BC). A wide range of evidence is presented in this thesis that shows that the bow and arrow may have been adopted during the Late Archaic period and was well established during the Middle Woodland period (AD 100) in several Eastern Woodland states.