Expression patterns of cyclin D1, D2, and D3 in the first three cell cycles in preimplantation embryo development
Cell-cycle progression in mammalian cells is coordinated by a series of control points. The D-type cyclins are a family of key cell cycle regulators that are controlled largely by mitogens and their association with and activation of cdk 4 and 6 at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This study seeks to first analyze cyclins D1, D2, and D3 expression patterns in preimplantation mouse embryos using in vivo studies and then analyze the effects of Dilantin on the cyclin D1 expression pattern in cultured embryos. Antibody staining against cyclin D1, D2, and D3 via indirect immunofluorescence using a Zeiss Confocal Microscope and analysis of individual embryo staining intensities using Zeiss computer software were employed to evaluate expression patterns throughout the first three cell cycles. The data showed that all three D cyclins were present throughout the first three cell cycles. Cyclin D1 had peak average fluorescence intensity at the G2 phase of the second cell cycle with a decrease at the G1 in the third cell cycle. Cyclin D2 had a consistent increase of fluorescence intensity throughout all three cell cycles. Cyclin D3 had peak average fluorescence intensity at the G2 phase of the second cell cycle with an immediate decrease at the Gl phase in the third cell cycle. Cyclin D1 was localized to the nucleus in G1 phases of the cell cycle. In contrast, cyclin D2 was found in the nucleus during G2 phases of the cell cycle rather than in G1. Cyclin D3 was not localized to the nucleus in either cell cycle phase throughout the first three cell cycles. These unique nuclear staining patterns seen by D1, D2, and D3 may reflect a function in the cell cycle. Embryos cultured in the presence of l0gg/ml of Dilantin were found to be slowed in development indicated by the absence of transition from the one-cell to the two-cell stage when compared to the controls. Since the Dilantin cultured embryos never reached G1 of the second cell cycle the increase in fluorescence intensity seen was still considered to be a representation of the G2 phase of the first cell cycle. Cyclin Dl's fluorescence intensity was affected by Dilantin and accompanied with unstained nuclei during the G2 phase of the first cell cycle. The peak average fluorescence intensity occurred during the G1 phase of the second cell cycle for cyclin D1 stained CZB control, while the vehicle control, 0.001N NaOH, remained constant. Both CZB and 0.001N NaOH had similar expression patterns seen previously in the cyclin D1 in vivo data. The information gained from the in vivo and in vitro experiments will help to better understand what causes the problems associated with exposure to Dilantin, and also the effects Dilantin has on the cell cycle.