Gender differences in SAT scores : analysis by race and socioeconomic level
Gender differences on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were analyzed by racial and socioeconomic groupings. Differences in SAT-Math scores, in SAT-Verbal scores, and in the difference between SAT-Math and SAT-Verbal scores were studied using four racial groupings (African American, Asian American, Caucasian American, and Hispanic American) and two socioeconomic groupings (average-to-high income and average-low income) of students. All differences were tested at the .05 level. Socioeconomic status was determined by using federal guidelines for free and reduced school lunches.The population of the study consisted of 7625 students (3962 females and 3663 males) from two school districts. School District A provided the SAT-M and SAT-V scores of 767 African American, 111 Asian American, 5202 Caucasian American, and 101 Hispanic American students. School District B provided the SAT-M and SAT-V scores of 139 African American,'179 Asian American, and 1126 Caucasian American students.Males, as a group, were found to be significantly higher than females in SAT-M scores and in the difference between SAT-M and SAT-V scores. Asian Americans and Caucasian Americans were found to score significantly higher than both African Americans and Hispanic Americans in SAT-M and SAT-V scores. Asian Americans were found to score significantly higher than all other racial groups in the difference between SAT-M and SAT-V scores. Hispanic Americans were found to score significantly lower than Asian Americans and Caucasian Americans and significantly higher than African Americans in SAT-M and SAT-V scores. African Americans were found to. score significantly lower than all other racial groups in SAT-M and SAT-V scores. A significant two-way interaction was found for gender and race in SAT-M scores, in SAT-V scores, and in the difference between SAT-M and. SAT-V scores. Gender differences in SAT scores varied significantly between each racial grouping.Average-to-high socioeconomic groups were found to have significantly higher scores than average-to-low socioeconomic groups in both SAT-M and SAT-V scores. These differences occurred regardless of gender and race. Significant linear differences were also found to occur in the difference between SAT-M and SAT-V scores over a seven year period.