A descriptive study on choices of oral corrective feedback by instructors of English as a second language
Previous research has explored the role of corrective feedback in second language (L2) learning (Li & Vuono, 2019), and most L2 researchers from an interactionist approach believe that corrective feedback is essential to learners’ linguistic development (El Tatawy, 2002). Much of current literature has explored types of written and oral corrective feedback commonly provided in language classrooms and the differential effects among written and oral feedback strategies on second language acquisition (SLA) (e.g., Bitchener & Knoch, 2009; Mackey 2006). However, little remains known about the types of oral corrective feedback typically used by experienced teachers in adult ESL classrooms. This case study was designed to investigate the types of oral corrective feedback commonly used by two instructors of two Speaking courses in which their students were adult learners of English and enrolled in an intensive English program. Classroom interactions between the instructors and their students were recorded and transcribed. The coding consisted of the interaction(s) before an error was made, the type of feedback following the error, and what happened after feedback occurred. Data analysis focused exclusively on the instances in which oral corrective feedback was provided. Recasts were found as the most frequent type of oral corrective feedback among the instructor participants, and multiple feedback was discovered as the second most common feedback strategy in the classroom of foundation level.