Health-related fitness changes in response to selected warm-up activities
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a tag-game and calisthenic warm-up routine verses a traditional jogging and calisthenic warm-up routine. A 10-week warm-up program measuring health-related fitness and attractions toward physical activity in second and fourth grade students was conducted. The participants were 30 second grade students and 38 fourth grade students. Two classes at each grade level participated for six or seven minutes at the beginning of each physical education class. The students were from a rural school district in western New York. The students' health-related fitness levels were pretested and posttested using the Prudential FitnessGram test. The students attraction toward physical activity was posttested using the Children's Attraction to Physical Activity Questionnaire (CAPA). Two way ANOVAS were used to determine if the traditional and tag-game oriented warm-up programs differed from each other on the Prudential FitnessGram test and the CAPA questionnaire. Using the Prudential FitnessGram test positive significant changes occurred in the areas of aerobic capacity and abdominal strength and endurance for the tag and jogging groups. In the area of trunk extensor strength and flexibility both groups showed improvements but not significant changes. Upper body muscular strength and endurance showed improvement for the tag-group but a decrease in the jogging group, however none were significant. Hamstring flexibility showed negative changes for both groups, none of which were significant. No significant differences in attitude were indicated by the CAPA. However, the tag-groups scored slightly higher in the areas of vigorous physical activity, importance of physical activity, and fun of physical exertion. The jogging groups scored slightly higher in the areas of liking games and sports, and peer acceptance in games and sports. The findings of this study suggest that a tag-game warm up routine format may play a positive role in developing health-related physical fitness for children. A longer training period and a larger variety of tag-games may need to be used in further studies.