Analysis of the Total individual progress level I pre-kindergarten screen : comparison of the factor structure for males and females

No Thumbnail Available
Graham, Laurie E.
Treloar, James H.
Issue Date
Thesis (D. Ed.)
Department of Educational Psychology
Other Identifiers

The purpose of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the Total Individual Progress Level I Pre-kindergarten Screen (TIP) for males and females. Exploratory factor analysis of the items was used to determine the underlying dimensions of TIP.The subjects were 799 students from a rural and suburban school district adjacent to a larger city in east-central Indiana who were screened prior to kindergarten entrance during the years 1977 to 1984. The sample was split to allow for cross-validation of the exploratory factor analysis results.The covariance structures of males and females were judged to be similar. Therefore, a principal components analysis using SPSS-X (Nie, 1983) was used to determine the optional number of factors to retain for males and females together in two separate samples. Judgements regarding the number of factors to retain was based on the scree plot and eigenvalue greater than one criteria (Reynolds & Paget, 1981). Both orthogonal and oblique rotations were explored for 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-factor solutions using principal factoring with iterations.The four-factor varimax solutions for Sample 1 and Sample 2 were found to provide the best solution of TIP. The same four constructs were found in both samples and were extracted in the same order, indicating reliability of this factor solution of TIP. The factors were named, in order, Language, Visual, Gross Motor, and Speech Mechanics.The results obtained in the two samples were compared in regard to Rummel's (1970) considerations. Similarities were found in number of retained factors, configuration of the variables, complexity of the solution, variance accounted for by the factors, and communalities. In addition, results of Tucker's congruence coefficient and Cattell's salient variable similarity index indicated factorial similarity for all four factors across both samples.The four derived factors did not completely resemble the four pre-established subscales of TIP.The Concepts subscale did not emerge as a separate construct and the Hearing and communication subscale was broken into two different factors. Fewer items comprised the four-factor varimax solution. Only two of the extracted factors, Gross Motor and Visual, resembled the pre-established subscales of Motor and Vision and Visual, respectively.