The effect of videotape feedback on self concept in elementary school counseling groups

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Brown, Carlotta, 1928-
Krause, Frank H.
Issue Date
Thesis (D. Ed.)
Department of Counseling Psychology and Guidance Services
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The purpose of this study was to determine, under experimental conditions, if children's self concepts would be influenced through the use of an elementary school counseling group experience utilizing videotape feedback. Three groups were used in the study--Group I utilized videotape feedback; Group II utilized verbal feedback; and Group III was read a story. Group I, which was the treatment, consisted of a group counseling session for 40 minutes, a 10 minute break and 40 minutes of videotape feedback. Group II consisted of a group counseling session for 40 minutes, a 10 minute break, and 40 minutes of verbal feedback. The subjects in Group III listened to a story read by the facilitator, took a 10 minute break then returned to listen to the story for another 40 minutes.The subjects in this study were all fourth grade pupils enrolled in the Vandenberg Elementary School located in Wiesbaden, Germany, which serves a United States military population. The total enrollment of the fourth grade at Vandenberg Elementary School numbered 75, 24 of which were selected as subjects. These subjects were selected randomly from the total fourth grade population.In order to randomly assign subjects for the experiment boys were given even numbers and girls were given odd numbers. Then the random number generator on a Texas Instrument Calculator SR-51 was used to select the prenumbered subjects. The 24 subjects were then further randomly assigned to Group I, Group II, and Group III.Three adult females enrolled in the Ball State University doctoral program in Guidance and Counseling acted as facilitators for the groups. These women have had counseling experience, group experience, and have worked with children. The assumption was that a large degree of hetrogenity would exist between facilitators.A post test only design was used. Two instruments were utilized to measure self concept. One was the Primary Self Concept Inventory and the other was the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. These instruments were hand scored by the researcher. Data collected for each subject consisted of the total scores and the subscale scores on the two instruments. The effects of the treatment were analyzed through a one way analysis of variance.The experimental hypothesis stated that there would be a difference between the experimental and control groups in the self concepts of the subjects as measured by the Primary Self Concept Inventory and by the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. Group II showed markedly lower self concept score as tested than did Treatment Group I or Treatment Group III.Recommendations for further research:1. The use of a pre-test/post-test design.2. The use of the same facilitator between groups. 3. The addition of a behavioral rating scale. 4. The groups should be conducted over several more sessions.5. Permanent placement of a video camera in a specific setting.Based on the results of this study, videotape feedback has equivocal results in self concept change in elementary school counseling groups. Further, the verbal feedback group was significantly lower in measured outcome than either the videotape feedback group or the control group.